Details about MOODS Components

DLIOOs, Distributed LIOOs

DLIOOs and will receive from MASE/MASAE station all information for visualizing the current score by means of the network. In DLIOOs the visualization will be performed according to the specific musical instrument to which each DLIOO is assigned. On each DLIOO, different sets of interpretation symbols will be provided depending on the instrument assigned.

Each DLIOO will work in two different modalities: EXECUTION and EDITOR. Each DLIOO on the Theater Network switches to EDITOR mode if MASE or MASAE is in EDITOR mode and the MASAE send an enabling to do changes. A DLIOO in EDITOR mode will be used for modifying classical and interpretation symbols for the instrument to which it has been assigned by using the ONCM. The modifications performed on DLIOOs in editor mode will be sent in real-time to MASE/MASAE editors for visualization and saving.

The DLIOOs is organized according to the hierarchical organization of the orchestra. In the orchestra/network two levels of DLIOOs will be present. Those of the first level are qualified to perform changes on the current score (main and interpretation symbols), while the others can be active or passive. The firsts have the same capabilities as those of their parent. The latter, the PDLOO, can only visualize scores/changes performed by the former. In EXECUTION mode DLIOOs and PDLOOs have the same behavior.

Conceptual relationship among lecterns

This hierarchical organization allows the first instrument (e.g., the 1st violin) to directly transmit the changes decided on the score of the other sub-lecterns (e.g., violins). Sometimes, the 1st violins can be two: in this case a DLIOO child is qualified to perform a cooperative work on the score and changes are reflected to the other violins. In any case, changes are sent to MASE/MASAE workstation. PDLOOs will be totally equal to DLIOOs from the hardware point of view; they receive a different role during the Orchestra/Network Configuration by the ONCM. This cooperative work among distributed lecterns is possible only if a high reliable and fast network is provided, since strong real-time constraints have to be met to guarantee real-time concurrent distributed editing.

Each DLIOO on the Theater Network will be in EXECUTION mode when MOODS is the EXECUTION mode (set by the MASAE). In EXECUTION mode any active lectern is qualified to editing the score. On the other hand, DLIOO and DPLOO can go ahead in the score part in order to look for the evolution of the music by pushing a button of the trackball or selecting with the pen a specific graphical button on the user interface. This navigation is allowed only if the next measure to be executed is farther than a given number of T seconds. This is evaluated by using timing of the execution given by the MASAE. Thus, T seconds before the execution the current score page is automatically visualized.

To make more acceptable to work with the electronic lecterns, the mechanism for page turning for DLIOOs/PDLOOs will be similar to that of MASE/MASAE editors/lecterns. The next page will be constructed by starting from the top as soon as the pentagrams on top are already executed. Also in this

case the screen will show two parts, one presenting the current page which is gradually reduced as soon as the measures and the pentagrams are executed, and the other which presents the next page growing in dimension from top to bottom. This is possible since in each instant the measure under execution is known on the basis of beat time by MASAE. In this way the modality adopted for reading scores by musicians will not be changed.

Thus passing from paper to DLIOOs will be facilitated. The mechanism of turning pages is driven by the MASAE lectern during execution on the basis of rules discussed in the sequel. It should be noted that different instruments, and thus different DLIOOs can have the turning of pages at different time instants; this is due to the different quantity of written music which has to be executed by each instrument.

DLIOO hardware, DLIOO-HW, will be built up by considering the usability in terms of ergonomicity, functionalities, and learnability. Operatively, the DLIOO-HW will be implemented by using commercial macro-components such as: mother board, network board, video adapter, LCD screen, etc.

The next image reports a snapshot of DLIOO, please consider that the actual resolution is much much better, we have in this case reduced the resolution in order to make the whole screen visible in this small part and the image fast loadable from the network. Moreover, the music reported has no sense is only an example.

DLIOO lecterns
Please note that the above images grabbed from the screen are shown at a lower resolution than the actual.

MASE/MASAE: MAin Score Editor/MAin Score Auxiliary Editor

MASE/MASAE will be capable of selecting a main score and parts from a temporary archive to distribute them to DLIOOs on the basis of a current Orchestra/Network Configuration.

Each modification performed on the current score by using MASE/MASAE is sent in real-time to the corresponding DLIOOs/PDLOOs, according to the association of each pentagram of main score to the corresponding physical lecterns connected by the network (using the ONCM). Modifications of the main score can involve all classical symbols of music and all the interpretation symbols. From the MASE/MASAE it is also possible to build new main scores and modifying old scores without loading the scores on DLIOOs (off-line modifications).

When MOODS is in EXECUTION mode, MASAE can be used for tracking the measure under execution by pushing a STEP KEY, and thus beating time. This causes the automatic turning of pages on all DLIOOs and on MASE. The pressing of STEP KEY will cause the passing to the next measure. When this leads to change page, this is automatically performed on all lecterns, DLIOOs and on MASE. In effect, MASE/MASAE editors/lecterns will not implement the page turning by scrolling the screen (strongly unacceptable) or with a complete redraw of score on the screen. MASE/MASAE will change the page by using a new idea: the next page will be gradually prepared from the left as soon as the measures from left of the current page will be already executed. This means that the measures corresponding to the next page will replace those of the current page as soon as the latter are executed. This also leads to have on the screen two areas one presenting the current page which is reducing in size loosing measures from left, and the other presenting the next page with an increasing number of visible measures. This process will be made continuously. This mechanism does not change the habit of musicians to read pages of paper-based lecterns. After a certain number of pressing actions on STEP KEYs the velocity of execution can be supposed as already learned and the MASAE will continue at that rate. A pressing action on STEP KEY will cause an adjusting to the current velocity, and the blinking of a marker will help the MASAE user. In this modality, the fast jumps defined for refrains are automatically executed.

MASE related hardware, MASE-HW, will be built up by considering usability in terms of ergonomicity, functionalities, and learnability. As DLIOO-HW, also MASE-HW will be implemented by using commercial macro-components.

The next image reports a snapshot of MASAE, please consider that the actual resolution is much much better, we have in this case reduced the resolution in order to make the whole screen visible in this small part and the image fast loadable from the network. Moreover, the music reported has no sense is only an example.

MASAE lectern

Please note that the above images grabbed from the screen are shown at a lower resolution than the actual.

Theater Network, TheNET
According to the low-level protocol selected (100 VG-AnyLAN and TCP/IP), a set of classes for guaranteeing the fulfillment of real-time constraints have been already designed and implemented. This low-level network software is based on PVM and object-oriented {TheNET96}, {PVM394}. On the other hand, to be profitably used in MOODS these must be customized, since a support for distributing high-level messages among objects in different lecterns is needed. This work will be performed by integrating of LIOO and MSLIOO of DSI for using the low-level network support implemented by DSI.

The Theater Network can have even 200 lecterns. Some of these could be DLIOO other PDLOO, while only one MASE and only one MASAE station will be present on the network.

Before using the Theater Network the Orchestra/Network Configuration must be performed. In that phase, the physical lecterns are associated with instruments. For example: lectern 13 for 1st violin (DLIOO), lectern 45 for a violin (PDLOO) depending on 1st violin, lectern 150 as the 1st flute (DLIOO), lectern 140 as a viola (PDLOO), etc. This association will define the relationships among lecterns according to the conceptual model described above. This work will be performed by the Orchestra/Network Configurator and Manager, ONCM.

Please note that the actual network is implemented by using 100 BT thus a hierarchy of HUBS serially connected is used.

Database of Scores and Orchestra Configurations

In the literature, there exists several formats for storing scores in computer files: Finale, Score, MusicTex, Darms, SMDL, NIFF, MIDI, etc., (see {LIOOEVOLUTION96}). Some of these formats are capable of covering only phonic aspects, and others are limited in representing music symbols. Even the SMDL (Standard Music Description Language) is unsatisfactory, being incomplete (see project CANTATE and SHYLOCK partner; see also SMDL standard and HyTime). Among the formats for storing music, NIFF format was considered the most diffuse and complete{NIFF695}. presently this role is covered by SCORE format and FINALE format. Two formats belonging to the respective music score editor.
SCORE can convert FINALE files in SCORE and it is presently used by the most important publishers of music.

The Database for MOODS prototype will allow the easy retrieval of main scores and parts in both MOODS and NIFF formats. MOODS format will be obtained by customizing the already present MSLIOO format, see for example the BNF in {MSLIOOMANUALE96}. The MOODS format for scores will include the features related to the distributed architecture of lecterns/editors. The direct adoption of SCORE format for saving scores has been rejected since the information modeled with MOODS format cannot be mapped in a SCORE or NIFF or other formats. MOODS will present more symbols than any other music format and will include all syntax relationships among them, for example several interpretation symbols {LIOOEVOLUTION96}.

For this reason, a converter from MOODS to SCORE format and vice versa will be implemented, accepting some loss but allowing the import of many many scores in SCORE or FINALE format. The large diffusion of SCORE format guarantees the possibility of printing main scores and parts by using commercial modules or applications (e.g., Music Printer Plus). The same mechanism will be used for producing and acquiring music in many other formats.

The Database will be capable of managing also orchestra/network configurations made by the ONCM. The Database will be capable of maintaining several versions of the same main score and parts and their related orchestra/network configurations, and all the related relationships will be maintained. The Database will be connected with the MASE/MASAE station by means of the network for allowing the transferring of main scores and parts from the archive to MASE/MASAE on the basis of remote queries. Database will maintain information about the exploitation of main scores and parts for accounting copyrights.

The Database will be placed in a different location with respect to MASE/MASAE station and to DLIOOs.

During the customization of the Database manager, a particular attention will be devoted to implement a suitable user interface for theaters and publishers. The Database and the relationships with the publishers will be developed by customizing a product of SHYLOCK partner and derived from CANTATE project.

The Database station could be connected with the publishers by means of Internet for establishing the automatic accounting of copyrights related to the manipulated scores on MASE/MASAE station, on DLIOOs and, if these are printed, in a given period, etc.